Market Cap

₹20.22 B 0.3888%

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₹1.1 B

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Kadena (KDA)

Kadena stands as a proof-of-work blockchain that ingeniously merges the consensus mechanism of Bitcoin with directed acyclic graph (DAG) principles. This strategic amalgamation results in a scalable iteration of Bitcoin that not only upholds the robust security features associated with Bitcoin but also introduces unparalleled throughput capabilities. Kadena positions itself as a blockchain uniquely tailored for mass adoption, catering to enterprises and entrepreneurs alike through its decentralized and multi-chain infrastructure.

The blockchain architecture crafted by Kadena is designed to offer industrial scalability, providing the necessary support for global financial systems. Notably, Kadena places a strong emphasis on maintaining energy efficiency at scale, aiming to deliver a higher transaction volume with the same energy input in contrast to traditional Bitcoin. A distinctive feature of Kadena is its introduction of crypto gas stations, a solution that enables businesses to cover their customers' gas fees. This innovation addresses a significant hurdle in the adoption of blockchain technology for business applications.

Kadena has demonstrated its scalability by expanding its network from 10 to 20 blockchains and possesses the capability to further scale in the future as demand dictates. The addition of the private Kuro layer-two blockchain is a testament to Kadena's commitment to high-performance solutions, supporting up to 8,000 transactions per second across 500 nodes.


Established in 2016, Kadena was founded by Stuart Popejoy and Will Martino, both seasoned professionals with extensive experience in the finance and blockchain sectors. Stuart Popejoy, who played a pivotal role in founding Kadena, previously spearheaded JPMorgan's Emerging Blockchain group, accumulating 15 years of expertise in constructing trading systems and financial infrastructure. Will Martino, another key founder, served as the Lead Engineer for JPMorgan's blockchain prototype Juno and held leadership positions in the Securities and Exchange Committee's Cryptocurrency Steering Committee and Qualitative Analytics Unit.

Dr. Stuart Haber, a prominent figure in Kadena's foundation, is renowned as the co-inventor of blockchain technology and holds the distinction of being the most cited author in the Bitcoin whitepaper.

In its journey to fruition, Kadena secured funding from various prominent crypto venture capitalists, including Multicoin Capital, CoinFund, Amino Capital, and others. The support from these investors underscores Kadena's significance in the blockchain space and its potential to deliver innovative solutions. The collective expertise of the founders, coupled with strategic investments, positions Kadena as a notable player in advancing blockchain technology and fostering its widespread adoption.

What Makes Kadena Unique?

Kadena introduces a unique approach to blockchain scalability through its public proof-of-work blockchain, employing a combination of two distinct consensus mechanisms: DAG (directed acyclic graph) and proof-of-work.

The essence of Kadena's innovation lies in the intertwining of multiple blockchains, constituting 20 separate chains that operate concurrently and independently to validate transactions. This simultaneous processing enables Kadena to generate multiple blocks concurrently, significantly enhancing its throughput. The braiding of chains not only boosts throughput but also fortifies security by minimizing the time interval between block confirmations, thereby reducing vulnerability to potential attacks.

Employing a directed acyclic graph structure, Kadena achieves scalability from a single proof-of-work blockchain to a theoretically unlimited number. However, the DAG structure is fixed and multi-channel, dictating that Kadena's blockchains communicate with a specific set of three peer chains instead of confirming transactions randomly. This deliberate structure enhances real-world performance and scalability.

Kadena's scalability is adaptable to user requirements, with the potential to scale up to 50 or even 100 blockchains, contingent upon sustained adoption. Nonetheless, scaling necessitates a hard fork in the network, a process triggered manually when congestion occurs. As fees rise during congestion, miners, forming a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO), are incentivized to collaborate in reconfiguring the network to accommodate increased demand.

Network Security 

Kadena employs a distinctive chain architecture known as Chainweb, integrating multiple proof-of-work blockchains. In this structure, each chain verifies the blocks of its three peer chains, resulting in a linear increase in throughput with the incorporation of additional chains. This design not only amplifies throughput but also enhances security by ensuring that Kadena chains collectively maintain a singular view of transaction history across all chains. The interconnected nature of chains poses a significant obstacle for potential attackers, as any attempt to compromise a single chain would require forking all running chains.

At the heart of Kadena's functionality is its smart contract language, Pact. Pact is a human-readable and Turing-incomplete language expressly designed for blockchain applications, boasting robust security features. The deliberate choice of Turing incompleteness in Pact ensures predictability and safety, mitigating the risks associated with unintended or maliciously crafted smart contracts. Pact stands out for its user-friendly readability, making it accessible to a broader audience while prioritizing security and reliability in blockchain operations.

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